Pesticide Harmonised Risk Indicators for Malta 2011-2021
Directive 2009/128/EC establishing a framework for Community action to achieve the sustainable use of pesticides (the Sustainable Use of Pesticides Directive - SUD) as transposed in Subsidiary Legislation 430.08 entitled Sustainable Use of Pesticides Regulations, 2011 (Legal Notice 489 of 2011) of the Laws of Malta, requires the establishment and calculation of Harmonised Risk Indicators (HRIs) by using statistical data collected in accordance with the Community Legislation concerning the statistics on plant protection products together with relevant data.
These HRIs are necessary to measure progress in meeting the objective of the SUD in the reduction of risks for pesticide use for human health and the environment.
In 2019, Directive (EU) 2019/782 was adopted to establish a method of calculation of HRIs with the intention to estimate the trends in risk resulting from pesticide use. Directive (EU) 2019/782 amends Annex IV of the SUD and is transposed in national legislation.
Further details on the establishment of HRIs can be found at the below link:
Data on pesticides is collected annually in accordance with Regulation (EC) No 1185/2009 concerning statistics on pesticides which establishes a common framework for the systematic production of community statistics on the placing on the market and use of those pesticides. The competent authority responsible for the reporting of such data is the National Statistics Office of Malta (NSO). In fulfilment of the obligations of Regulation (EC) No 1185/2009, data on sales of authorised plant protection products (PPPs) is collected on an annual basis from all recognised importers and is transmitted.
Harmonised Risk Indicators
Risk indicators are the result of a method of calculation that can be used to evaluate risk of pesticides on human health or the environment. Directive (EU) 2019/782, as transposed in national legislation, supports a harmonised way of how the indicators can be calculated.
Two HRIs are calculated: HRI1 and HRI2.
Harmonised Risk Indicator 1 (HRI1)
HRI1 is calculated from the quantities of pesticide active substances placed on the market which are submitted to Eurostat on an annual basis. A weighting factor is applied based on the information and the classification of the active substance in the pesticide in accordance with Regulation (EC) 1107/2009. HRI1 is calculated based on the categorisation of active substances into groups and categories.
Four main groups are outlined based on the information on whether the active substance is low risk, a candidate for substitution or other active substances, while seven categories are outlined to further subdivide the groups. Categorisation of active substances is updated annually by the European Commission to consider new approvals and/or other changes such as changes in classification. The trend lines outlined in this report take into account any updates to categories effective during the reporting period.
The baseline considered for the calculations concerning HRI1 is set at 100 and equal to the average value reflective of the quantities of pesticide active substances placed on the market for the first three years of data i.e. the period of 2011 to 2013. Thus, the total volume placed on the market annually is expressed as an index in relation to 100.
The trend line for HRI1, as depicted in Figure 1, retains a mild fluctuation throughout the first 5 years of data. A decline in volume, lower than the initial reporting value for commencement of the reporting period, is depicted beyond 2015 to 2018, reflecting a reduction in quantities of plant protection products placed on the market and use in these years. The steady decline is also evident for 2019 and 2021, however there was a slight increase in 2020.
Figure 1. HRI1 trend line for the years 2011-2021 for Malta reflecting the volume of plant protection products placed on the market annually.
Harmonised Risk Indicator 2 (HRI2)
HRI2 is calculated based on the number of emergency authorisations granted for active substances annually. A weighting factor is applied based on the information and the categorisation of the active substance in the pesticide in accordance with Regulation (EC) 1107/2009. The baseline considered for the calculations concerning HRI2 is also set at 100 and equal to the average value of emergency authorisations for the first three years of data i.e. the period of 2011 to 2013. Thus, the total number of authorisations annually are expressed as an index in relation to 100.
Figure 2. HRI2 trend line for the years 2011-2021 for Malta reflecting the number of emergency authorisations granted annually.
Trends, practices and items for Malta, in the use of certain active substances
The number of emergency authorisations granted annually in Malta remains low during the reporting period, ranging from no authorisations as in the case for year 2012 up to a maximum of three authorisation as in the case of 2017 and 2018. The emergency authorisations were granted for limited and controlled use in cases where the situation could not be controlled by other reasonable means and no alterative authorised plant protection products were available to deal with the pest in line with the provisions of Regulation 1107/2009. From 2019 until 2021, no emergency authorisations were granted.
 The data collected annually in accordance with Regulation (EC) No 1185/2009 concerning statistics on pesticides which establishes a common framework for the systematic production of community statistics on the placing on the market and use of those pesticides, transmitted to Eurostat, was used to calculate the HRI reflecting volumes of plant protection products placed on the market annually in Malta, in accordance to the method of collection provide in Directive (EU) 2019/782.
 Regulation (EC) No 1107/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 October 2009 concerning the placing of plant protection products on the market and repealing Council Directives 79/117/EEC and 91/414/EEC